Saturday, March 14, 2020
The Broken Chain essays There has been more talk than usual lately about the abuse and angry beating of helpless people, mostly children and many women. I think about it. I have never been beaten, so empathy is my only weapon against the ugliness I know vicariously. On the radio someone talks about a chain of violence. When is it broken? He asks. How? When I was growing up, I was occasionally spanked and always by my father. I often had to go upstairs with him when he came home from the News for lunch, and pull down my panties and lay myself obediently across his long bony knees, and then steel my emotions against the ritualistic whack of five or eight or even ten sharp taps from a wooden hairbrush. They were counted by my age, and by nine or ten he began to use his hand, in an expert upward slap that stung more than the hairbrush. I often cried a little, to prove that I had learned my lesson. I knew that Rex disliked this duty very much, but that it was part of being Father. Mother could not or would not punish us. Instead, she always said, by agreement with him and only when she felt that things were serious enough to drag him into it, that she would have to speak with him about the ugly matter when he came home at noon. This always left me a cooling-off period of thought and regret and conditioned dread, even though I knew that I had been the cause, through my own stupidity, of involving both my parents in the plot. Maybe it was a good idea. I always felt terrible that it was dragged out. I wished that Mother would whack me or something and get it over with. And as I grew older I resented having to take several undeserved blows because I was the order child and was solemnly expected to be a model to my younger sister, Anne. She was a comparatively sickly child, and spoiled and much clever than I, and often made it bitterly clear to me that I was an utter fool to take punishment for her own small jaunty misdoings. I continued to do this, far...
Wednesday, February 26, 2020
Torts; CyberTorts; Strict Liability; Products Liability; Consumer Protection Law 3 - Essay Example This is in light with the mandates developed over a timeframe and these levels against the substantive compositions of the developed agreements. As such, the mandates developed as per the required rights exponentially give these coordinates the required protection. In view of the developing individual agreements, the global network itself has reinforced the required attributes by creating a virtual impression that summarily enriches the objectivity of the trademarks. The principle establishment of the required trade laws has independently enriched the efforts aimed at provided national based agreements. (ECT, 2009) Research works of WTO2 and the mergers that transform the entire system created uniformity in the system and this clearly ensured that better review mechanism remained in place to support enforceable laws and create the required impression as per the ideal rule of law. In view of the created laws, better management systems were evaluated and coordinated at all court based levels in order to ensure that proper projections remain tangible. The establishment of remotely controlled trademarks helped to manage the ideal list as per the correlated measures. The global network ensured that replacements within the national platform3 would clearly develop independent evaluation as required in all principled applications. This enacted situation also created total reliance on trademarks as well as interactive laws on active developmental conditions4. This further showed that actions based on continuous analysis of the aided quality initiatives equally allowed information to be shared through t he required levels. The coverage as per the amended factors would flexible give the research initiatives new formation which is naturally developed basing on the domestication of the trademark laws. The certainty of the law has gained more popularity over a period of time and this according to
Monday, February 10, 2020
Lenin and Bolshevik Revolution - Essay Example Throughout Russia had only one leader, Lenin, who planned, plotted, propagated and executed the task of bringing down the monarchy to replace it with the communist rule. Even after coming to power through a bloody path that eliminated ordinary people, the noble class including the royal family, most of which definitely must have happened under his direction, Lenin, unlike Stalin, tried hard to bring justice to the sufferers and wholeheartedly tried to make his dream a practical reality. There are no two opinions about his intentions or the way in which he conducted himself even after becoming the ruler. There were many leaders in Russia of the day; but they were followers of Lenin, and it was only Lenin who dreamt of the revolution, worked for it, planned every move, executed it flawlessly and created a communist society for the first time in the world. Lenin was very aware of the right timings for every action especially so, after the brief and un-prepared coup became unsuccessful. "The Bolsheviks became involved in an abortive coup in July, from which Lenin deduced the importance of the precise timing for any future attempt," says Stephen J. Lee1. After a very long and frustrating life of a fugitive, Lenin was very keen that all his carefully laid out plans should not lead to a disaster. When the first abortive coup happened, he became more careful about the timings and preparations. Even his enemies and critics are impressed by his hard work, planning capability, practicality and the capacity of taking all the circumstances into focus before making any decision. Very few of his decisions went wrong and whenever they did, he took great pains to either correct them or to terminate them. There were no doubt, many leaders and visionaries. But it was he, who guided every step of the revolution, though his successors ruined his achievements to a very large extent. "Lenin is the key to understanding the Russian Revolution. His dream was the creation of the world's first Socialist state. It was a short-lived dream that became a nightmare when Stalin rose to absolute power in 1929. Lenin was the avant-garde revolutionary who adapted Marxist theory to the practical realities of a vast, complex and backward Russia2". It is very difficult to find a historian who could undermine the role Lenin played in the revolution. People might agree or disagree with him; but they could never ignore him and all historians know that there could not have been a better leader under those circumstances, and anyone other than him, would have been a dismal failure, in throwing out a very powerful monarchy and uniting, modernising a country of the size of a continent. He, according to the requirement of the circumstances, could show the idealistic, modernistic, communist, educationist, heroic and totally committed facets of his personality as a leader thus to find support and sympathy from almost all the sections of Soviet Russia. What he achieved single-handedly would be very difficult to
Thursday, January 30, 2020
Marketing project Essay Cadbury plc is a confectionery and beverage company with its headquarters in London, United Kingdom, and is the worlds largest confectionery manufacturer. The firm was formerly known as Cadbury Schweppes plc before demerging in May 2008, separating its global confectionery business from its Americas beverage unit, which has been renamed Dr Pepper Snapple Group Inc. In 1825, John Cadbury began vending tea, coffee, and (later) chocolate at Bull Street in Birmingham in the UK and sometimes in India. The company was later known as Cadbury brothers. After John Cadburys retirement, his sons, Richard and George, opened a major new factory at Bourneville. Over the years many mergers and acquisitions were undertaken. The biggest merger came in 1969. Cadburys merged with drinks company Schweppes to form Cadbury Schweppes in 1969. With this merger, besides chocolate confectionary, Cadbury entered into the drinks business with brands such as Snapple, Mistic and many more. In May 2008, Cadbury Schweppes split its business into two separate entities: one focusing on its main chocolate and confectionery market; the other on its U. S. drinks business. Thus the firm was renamed Cadbury plc and the beverage unit, was renamed Dr Pepper Snapple Group Inc. Cadbury plc operates in over 60 countries. They work with around 35,000 direct and indirect suppliers and employ around 50,000 people. Cadbury India Ltd: Cadbury India Limited is a 51% subsidiary of Cadbury Plc, UK. Cadbury India Ltd began its operations in 1948 by importing chocolates and then re-packing them before distribution in the Indian market. After 60 years of existence, it today has five company-owned manufacturing facilities at Thane, Induri (Pune) and Malanpur (Gwalior), Bangalore and Baddi (Himachal Pradesh) and 4 sales offices (New Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkota and Chennai). It has its cocoa operations at Cochin. The corporate office is in Mumbai. The 4PÃ¢â¬â¢s of cadbury 1. Product :- Objective: A Dairy Milk in every pocket. Sizes: Dairy Milk comes in many sizes, the smallest being a 3. 5 gms pack. The most widely sold packs are the 3. 5gm, 12gm and 28gm packs. The smaller packs were introduced mainly to make Dairy Milk affordable to rural population and the lower and lower middle class of the urban areas. Variants: CDM has many variants around the world. The ones available in India are Ã¢â¬â plain, Fruit Nut, Roasted Almond, Crackle, Desserts, Wowie, Bournville. Packaging : CDM is available in Ã¢â¬ËPurity SealÃ¢â¬â¢ packaging which includes aluminium foil enclosed in a sealed poly-flow pack. Larger CDMs are available in poly-coated, heat-sealed aluminium foil wrapped in the branded outer package. The company believes that these steps are the Ã¢â¬Ëfirst everÃ¢â¬â¢ in chocolate packaging in India. Labelling: Swirls in the new Cadbury logo give Ã¢â¬Ëmilk goodnessÃ¢â¬â¢ cues. Cadbury logo enlarged as a stamp of quality. Dairy Milk brand is endorsed across all variants. It has a Ã¢â¬ËGlass and Half Full MilkÃ¢â¬â¢ logo with a Purplised background. Overall strategy: Over the years CDM has implemented line stretching suitably and successfully. Cadbury has employed a two-way stretch strategy. CDM has sought the task of universalising consumption from the smallest town in India to the largest metro and from the youngest child to the oldest adult. CDM has become richer and smoother, has strategically employed Ã¢â¬Ëmaster-brandingÃ¢â¬â¢ or megabranding on packaging to bring the entire moulded range under the CDM umbrella and at the same time it has enhanced child connect to compete more effectively with the increased range in sugar confectionery and other impulse products like branded potato chips. 2. Price : Objective: Maximize sales (double the turn over) and profit and increase market share of CDM. It wants to double its turnover by 2010, which calls for a growth rate of over 20 per cent annually. Since CDM is CadburyÃ¢â¬â¢s biggest brand its sales figures are going to be crucial in doubling the turnover. So Cadbury wants to get more people to eat more chocolate, which calls for making it more affordable and being more innovative. Moreover the chocolate segment is characterized by high volumes, low margins and price sensitivity. So the only way to achieve a high turnover is by increasing sales and so pricing strategy is of prime importance. Strategy: market penetration pricing Ã¢â¬â they have clearly used market penetration pricing. To penetrate the market they didnÃ¢â¬â¢t reduce their prices. Instead they introduced smaller packs with lower prices (5Rs). They offered products at affordable price points so as to increase its market penetration. This strategy worked for them as the most revenue is generated on sale of these smaller Ã¢â¬â low priced packs. Thus their strategy worked. Appealing to a broader range of consumers is at the heart of their plan. So the penetration strategy is appropriate for rural segments and lower income segments. But the higher income segments in urban areas associate price with quality. For this segment price acts as a signal for quality and size as a symbol of affluence. So the small sized low priced packs would not appeal to them. Moreover these low prised packs would not be appropriate for the gift segment either. Furthermore Cadbury is a big brand with high brand equity. Sometimes low prices can damage the brand name. Keeping that in mind Cadbury has caters to the urban segment by bigger 15 Rs and 40 Rs packs on plain Dairy Milk. Also the almond and nutty variants are targeted at the teenagers and urban rich at a premium price. The same variants in bigger sizes and at much higher prices are targeted towards the gift segment. Combination of larger packs, expensive variants and premium pricing is the strategy employed to attract the rich. 3. Promotion : Objectives: Leverage further the brand name Cadbury (chocolate = Cadbury) and the brand name Dairy Milk. Target a new broader segment. To leverage the Cadbury label, the company has been doing aggressive advertising and promotions. Promotion budget is decided as percentage of sales. Cadbury spends about 12-13 % of sales revenues on advertising. 70 % of this budget is being spent above the line and 30 % is spent below the line. Their budgets are fair because they donÃ¢â¬â¢t need to invest to create awareness as the brand is fairly well known and has a huge market share and consumer base. But at the same time CDM is still in its growing stage implying that there are still more people CDM can target by advertising. Also CDM has no major rivals and enjoys the no. 1 position but increase in easy availability of imported chocolates could lead to competitive advertising requiring larger budgets. Cadbury only uses non-personal communication channels such as advertising, sales promotion, and events and experiences. A brand like Cadbury would not require personal selling. Advertising (above the line promotions): Objective: To give people NOVEL reasons to celebrate and celebrate it with CDM. To target more people and larger segments. Reminding the consumer and reinforcing the brand are implied objectives. Advertisements for Cadbury Dairy Milk have been dominated by use of emotional appeals. These adverts have made a conscious effort to communicate values of chocolate at the highest experiential level. Sales promotion (below the line promotions): Sampling and Give-Aways: For new products i. e. new variants Cadbury gives out samples at malls, cafes etc. This is done over and above a massive advertising campaign and a grand launch. This was done for its dark chocolate variant. Point-of-Sale Promotion and Displays: Cadbury India Ltd rolled out a slew of customised marketing and communication initiatives at the retail end. The purple package and now the glossy purple package has forever been a very attractive feature of CDM prompting customers to choose the vibrant purple over other brands. 4. Place: Outlet location: The decision for location of retail shops is a very simple one for Cadbury. They should be everywhere. Outlets must to accessible because people will not too far from home for a 10 Rs chocolate (with the exception of rural areas). Moreover there must be suitable outlets for different segment. Thus the outlets must range from an exclusive chocolate shop in an A grade mall to an ordinary kirana shop. So the retail outlets in urban areas include pan-shops, kirana shops, chemists, departmental stores, super markets malls etc. Retail outlets in rural areas only include the kirana shops and chemists and to a certain extent the pan-shops. Small eateries in rural areas are also known to stock chocolates. Keeping up the non-traditional route: CIL plans to sell Cadbury products through non-traditional outlets like music stores (such as MusicWorld), renowned bookstores and popular apparel outlets (such as Pantaloons and Wills Sport boutiques). Hence Cadbury clearly implements Intensive Distribution by using a large number of intermediaries at all the levels especially the retail level. Channels of distribution: Objective: To reduce total channel cost and to improve the quality of the supply-chain i. e. ensuring safe handling of CDM at the retailer end. First thing to consider is that Cadbury uses a pull strategy. Intermediaries are of great importance in pull strategies. Cadbury might spend a lot on advertising and attract a great number of customers, but all will be in vain if the intermediaries donÃ¢â¬â¢t keep sufficient stocks to meet the demands. Cadbury uses a vertical marketing channel with 2- levels i. e. the wholesaler and retailer. In retail they have store-retailing. Cadbury has over 2100 distributors and over 7 lakh retailers who sell over 1 million Cadbury Dairy Milk bars every day. SWOT ANALYSIS SWOT analysis for Cadbury and CDM Strengths: It has a strong brand name and brand equity and a significant amount of trust and loyalty from consumers. ? It has Strong leadership position in confectionary markets and the chocolate market not only in India but world over. Cadbury and CDM both have a rich product mix. Cadbury India Limited has strategic as well as monetary support from the parent Cadbury Plc. It has 200 years of experience in chocolate making. Cadbury is not completely reliant on just chocolate products. It has a well balanced portfolio which includes leading brands across the chocolate, sugar, confectionery, chewing gum segments to name a few. Weaknesses: Lack of launch of new brands in Chocolates segment. They have introduced more and more variants of CDM but have not introduced anything new in the market. This implies that their R D section is not at its strongest. ? Vulnerability to raw material price fluctuations. Low melting point. Opportunities: New product launches especially healthy chocolates. More collaborations or co-brandings like the one with Disney for Wowie. ? The market for traditional sweets in India is worth 11,000 Cr. Even a small share of this market could prove to be very profitable. ? Improving the istribution channels to improve the quality of service and to increase profit margins. Using information and technology to bring efficiency in logistics and distribution. Threats: Growing Health Concerns among people is leading to lower consumption of sugar and fat. ? Threats from new entrants in the market (foreign chocolate). Some of these new entrants are huge brands with deep pockets. ? The company has large exposure to foreign currency exchange rate risk, mainly on account of imported cocoa beans and cocoa butter in US Dollar and Pound Sterling.
Wednesday, January 22, 2020
Geographic Information Systems Geographic information systems (GIS) technology can be used for scientific investigations, resource management, and development planning. For example, a GIS might allow emergency planners to easily calculate emergency response times and effected areas of the ocean during an oil spill based on the spills location. You may ask, what is GIS? In the strictest sense, a GIS is a computer system capable of assembling, storing, manipulating, and displaying geographically referenced information, i.e. data identified according to their locations. Practitioners also regard the total GIS as including operating personnel and the data that go into the system. A geographic information system (GIS) works in a series of steps, First there is the relating information from different sources. If you could relate information about oil spill location to the oceans surface currents, you might be able to tell where to start clean up based on how long the oil has been in the o cean. A GIS, which can use information from many different sources, in many different forms can help with such analyses. The primary requirement for the source data is that the locations for the variables are known. Location may be annotated by x, y, and z coordinates of longitude, latitude, and elevation and any variable that can be located spatially can be fed into a GIS. Several computer databases that can be directly entered into a GIS are being produced by Federal agencies and private firms. Different kinds of data in map form can be entered into a GIS. A GIS can also convert existing digital information, which may not yet be in map form into forms it can recognize and use. For example, digital satellite images can be analyzed to produce a map like layer of digital information about marine life productivity. Likewise, sea-grass data can be converted to map-like form, serving as layers of thematic information in a GIS. Next Step for Geographic information systems (GIS) would be to Capture the data If the data to be used is not already in digital form, that is, in a form the computer can recognize, various techniques can capture the information. Maps can be digitized, or hand-traced with at computer mouse, to collect the coordinates of features. Electronic scanning devices will also convert map lines and points to digits. A GIS can be used to emphasize the spatial relationships among the objects being mapped.
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
Ã¢â¬Å"Is the Ã¢â¬Ëphilosophy of swineÃ¢â¬â¢ objection a telling criticism of Utilitarian theory? Why or why not? Ã¢â¬ Philosophy of swine. This was mentioned by Mill criticizing BenthamÃ¢â¬â¢s utilitarianism. Before looking at MillÃ¢â¬â¢s criticism, historical background of the birth of utilitarianism should be discussed ahead. Utilitarianism arose in the Industrial Revolution period. As nations became industrialized in the eighteenth century, bourgeois: an industrial middle class, appeared demanding new political and economic theory which would support their own interests.In the economic sphere, Adam Smith introduced laissez-faire theory following new eraÃ¢â¬â¢s request. However, political theory was still remaining at social contract theory of the seventeenth century. Especially, as Britain was enjoying its period of political and constitutional stability after the Glorious Revolution, social contract theory which explains legitimacy of a government didnÃ¢â¬â¢t attr act peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s attention any more. Going through the social fluctuations, Bentham came up with an idea called Ã¢â¬ËutilitarianismÃ¢â¬â¢. BenthamÃ¢â¬â¢s theory was remarkably progressive that he was considered as philosophical radicals.In accordance with the bourgeoisÃ¢â¬â¢ demand for theory appropriate to those days, BenthamÃ¢â¬â¢s utilitarianism was based on a very simple premise; every man pursues happiness. A single behavior is determined to be moral or not by whether it creates happiness. This makes utilitarianism solely focus on the consequence of the act. Bentham also insists that every choice should be made toward the maximization of utility. Regarding making political decisions, we should follow the policy that yields Ã¢â¬Ëthe greatest happiness of the greatest numberÃ¢â¬â¢.However, BenthamÃ¢â¬â¢s theory is denounced by Mill, because it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t acknowledge the objective standard of values. When Bentham deals with the happiness, that only count is the total aggregation of the amount of happiness. The standard and quality of the pleasure is totally disregarded. For example, there is no difference in quality between satisfied satiety after eating delicious food and the feeling of academic accomplishment. However, Mill completes Utilitarianism criticizing and supplementing this quantitative utilitarianism. It is better to be a human being dissatisfied than a pig satisfied; better to be Socrates dissatisfied than a fool satisfied. Ã¢â¬ This famous phrase denotes that human happiness is inseparable from the question of quality, and there exists much higher level of pleasure. It is reasonable for Mill to criticize BenthamÃ¢â¬â¢s utilitarianism as the philosophy of swine. However, not all utilitarian theories should be regarded as the swine philosophy. Mill developed qualitative utilitarianism with this criticism and also established liberalism thoughts on this ground, which still has a significant impact on todayÃ¢â¬â¢s poli tical theory.Thus, the answer to the given question is partly yes and partly no. This essay will endeavor to explain that utilitarianism is more than just hedonism; utilitarianism completed by Mill, liberal thoughts suggested in On Liberty, and its impact on present society will be discussed further. First of all, Mill introduced the concept of quality to existing utilitarianism. He suggested that Ã¢â¬Å"some kinds of pleasure are more desirable and more valuable than others. Ã¢â¬ Mental pleasure is much superior to physical and instinctive pleasure, because only human beings can experience the former.For this reason, MillÃ¢â¬â¢s utilitarianism is often called humanized utilitarianism. Another factor that distinguishes Mill from Bentham is that his idea of compatibility between individual utility and social utility. This argument is also used when criticizing Bentham who saw human beings as selfish entities. Contrarily, Mill concluded that men do not always pursue an immediate profit. Of course, human beings are fundamentally self-centered, but they can give up present interests since they can see the future through long-term perspective.For example, volunteer workers who seek for positive change in the future cannot be explained by BenthamÃ¢â¬â¢s standpoint. Human beings have an element that enables them to sacrifice themselves and find their lives worth living for social utility. In this way, Mill completed more refined utilitarian theory emphasizing the harmony between individual and society. In his famous work On Liberty, Mill put great emphasis on social liberty as well as individual liberty. He relates human behavior with social utility and stresses again that human beings are not obsessed with immediate interests.He says that Ã¢â¬Å"I regard utility as the ultimate appeal on all ethical questions; but it must be utility in the largest sense, grounded on the permanent interests of man as a progressive being. Ã¢â¬ What we should take note from t his is that human beings are progressive. This is the distinctive part where MillÃ¢â¬â¢s theory excels BenthamÃ¢â¬â¢s. Aforementioned, men can desert present interest since they are progressive entities, expecting future advantages. In a word, Mill upgraded the notion of utility to the means to menÃ¢â¬â¢s durable profits. The concept Ã¢â¬ËutilityÃ¢â¬â¢ is used in modern political philosophy in relation to welfare.In this manner, utilitarianism, from the nineteenth century to present days, has worked as a central part of political theories, and has had a great influence on democracy as a foundation of liberalism. Thus, to condemn utilitarianism as hedonistic theory cannot be justified. The last factor defending utilitarianism from such criticism is that it provides a basic ground for securing freedom of thought and speech. This is also closely connected with utilitarianism which formed the basis of MillÃ¢â¬â¢s theory. Individual freedom should be guaranteed under any circ umstances, because it is directly correlated to social utility.Mill particularly gives priority to freedom of thought and speech more than any other freedom. The premise of the freedom of thought and speech is that every opinion has a possibility of being a fallacy. Mill insists that Ã¢â¬Å"If the opinion is right, they are deprived of the opportunity of exchanging error for truth. Ã¢â¬ This can be justified from the utilitarian perspective, because every opinion, albeit it is a minority opinion, is possible enough to contribute to the progress of the society. All thoughts and expressions have utility for the development of humanity.The fact known to us as a truth can turn out to be false at any time; the Copernican theory exploded pervading heliocentric theory and EinsteinÃ¢â¬â¢s theory of relativity reversed existing scientific system. Consequentially, a maximum guaranteed freedom produces increased happiness for mankind. This is a crucial part of liberalism that emphasizes t he minimization of the government intervention in individuals for every personÃ¢â¬â¢s freedom. Liberalism established by Mill became the very foundation of western political philosophy until RawlsÃ¢â¬â¢ theory appears.From this, the importance of utilitarianism is induced; it is more than just hedonistic theory. So far weÃ¢â¬â¢ve gone through some reasons why utilitarianism is not the philosophy of swine that appeals to human instinct, putting MillÃ¢â¬â¢s idea at the center. It is true that early utilitarian thinker Bentham suggested somewhat hedonistic theory. However, his idea of utilitarianism that consequence counts the most has worked as a fundamental root of utilitarianism and was revised, developed, and completed by Mill. Swine philosophy objection is only valid when criticizing Bentham, but it is also ard to deny that Bentham did contribute to the establishment of modern political thoughts by setting up a radical theory of that time. Thus, swine objection seems hard to be an effective critique to utilitarianism. (1,195 words) Bibliography Bentham, Jeremy. An Introduction to the principles of morals and legislation. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1907. Mill, J. S. Utilitarianism, Liberty, Representative Government. London: Dent, 1972. Mulgan, Tim. Understanding Utilitarianism. Stocksfield U. K. : Acumen, 2007. Riley, Jonathan. Liberal Utilitarianism: social choice theory and J. S. MillÃ¢â¬â¢s Philosophy.Cambridge England; New York: Cambridge University Press, 1988. Riley, Jonathan. Ã¢â¬Å"What are Millian Qualitative Superiorities? Ã¢â¬ Prolegomena: Journal of Philosophy 7, no. 1 (2008): 61-79. Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â [ 1 ]. Jeremy Bentham, Ã¢â¬Å"Of the Principle of Utility,Ã¢â¬ in An Introduction to the principles of morals and legislation (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1907), 1-7. [ 2 ]. John Stuart Mill, Utilitarianism, Liberty, Representative Gover nment (London; Dent, 1972), 9. [ 3 ]. Ibid. , 7. [ 4 ]. Mill, Utilitarianism, Liberty, Representative Government, 74. [ 5 ]. Ibid. , 79.
Monday, January 6, 2020
Chapter 1 Introduction and Background 1.1 Introduction According to Myers (2011), Hospital Accreditation is a self-assessment process carried out by health care bodies to determine the level of performance by the set standards. The process of hospital accreditation not only sets the standards for operation but also provides and support to the stakeholders on how to improve the performance. Although the accreditation bodies set the standards of service, there is little evidence supporting the credibility and effectiveness of the certification programs. Healthcare accreditation isan important activity in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia bearing in mind the vast population of the country and the high number of hospitals operating in the kingdom. Saudi Arabia has approximately 27 million people and more than 415 hospitals (Central Department of Statistics, 2010). In addition, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is the second largest oil producer (Ramady, 2010). The kingdom also occupies 830, 000sq mi, approximately four-fifths of the Arabian Peninsula. The country shares borders with Iraq and Jordan to the north, Qatar and UAE to the eastwhile Yemen and Oman border the country on the south and southeast respectively. Most of the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s land is arid and inhospitable due to the barren landforms. Oil exploration hassignificantly fuelled the growth rate of the kingdom and consequently improved the welfare of the citizens (WHO, 2007). The high growth rate has necessitated theShow MoreRelatedThe Role Of The Joint Commission On Accreditation Of Hospitals1583 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe role of accreditation in the hospital setting. The history of the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Hospitals is a story of the health professionsÃ¢â¬â¢ commitment to patient care of high quality in the 20th century. 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